THE  ELECTRON  PHASE  SHIFT

The lambda / 2 phase shift.

The lambda spaced lines on the wave peaks switch to valleys on the right.

   

The electron phase shift had to be explained carefully because it modifies seriously the way matter acts and reacts. Actually, this stunning phenomenon allows one to explain why the action and reaction law holds true. It is all about Matter Mechanics.

The full wavelength electron core.

In July 2003, I found Mr. Milo Wolff's web site. I noticed that the core in the center of his electron was a full wavelength in diameter. I immediately wrote a computer program in order to check this and I soon found that the core for spherical standing waves should indeed be a full lambda wide as shown above.

This was also very clearly demonstrated by Mr. Jocelyn Marcotte thanks to his optimized 3-D Virtual Medium. Mr. Marcotte also showed that any spherical incoming Gaussian impulse simply reproduces the same normal distribution pattern in the center. Surprisingly, the well known two peaks "Ricker wavelet" (which is used for studying earthquakes -and not named after "Richter") as a convergent spherical system produces the same Gaussian distribution pattern in the center. 

In addition, the electron amplification is caused by a lens effect. The resulting energy is extracted from aether waves and it is permanently radiated all around. This leads us to four important points:

1 - The electron is a pulsating wave center. Electrons constantly radiate energy.

2 - The electron is a finite system. In my opinion its standing waves progressively fade out and do not expand significantly outside a one meter radius sphere, and possibly much less.

3 - Spherical standing waves are not made out of in-waves and out-waves. This is indeed a very useful and effective method for displaying standing waves. However, this point of view absolutely does not correspond to what is really going on. Any standing wave node is a zero energy point where no energy can pass through. The medium substance simply moves back and forth inside a lambda / 2 space, and this phenomenon obeys Hooke's law. 

4 - The electron is made of spherical standing waves which are superimposed on outgoing traveling waves whose amplitude is nil at the center. The result is not well known as partially standing waves. I made the animation below in order to show that standing waves can slowly transform into traveling waves, with a transitional partially standing wave state between them :

   

The electron is a pulsation wave center because its standing waves progressively transform to regular traveling waves.

The emitted energy is borrowed from all aether waves traveling in the vicinity because of a lens effect.

   

Now, let us suppose that two electrons are very close together. Then only pure standing waves, not partially standing waves, are present. It becomes obvious that the wave addition, especially along the axis joining them, may vary.

As a matter of fact, adding or removing just a half-wavelength to the distance produces opposite effects which are clearly visible in the diagrams below.

   

Intermediate on-axis waves cancel, but the rest add constructively beyond both electrons.

The external radiation pressure produces an attraction effect.

   

Here, the distance is .5 wavelength shorter and the result is rather a repulsion effect.

Intermediate waves add constructively but they rather cancel beyond both electrons.

So there should be an equilibrium point for a .25 wavelength distance difference.

   

The important point is that, if the election core was only a half-lambda wide, this opposite effect would be absent. Waves would add constructively or destructively everywhere.

The capture phenomenon.

Assuming that axial standing waves are amplified, they radiate energy towards both sides. In the upper diagram situation, there is an inward radiation pressure only and both electrons are pushed towards each other. On the contrary, they are rather repelled in the lower diagram. It becomes obvious that there is an equilibrium point in-between, and as long as the particles are not moving very fast with respect to each other, they must be captured in this position. The electron or positron pair then becomes a quark. It is truly a Wave Structure, and it is responsible for neutrons, protons, and all other more or less stable particles.

Excessive vibrations may destroy the resulting particle, though, and there is surely a privileged distance where this clamping effect is likely to occur. Please note this appears to be a gluonic field. It is not an electrostatic field because the electron standing waves are involved. Electrostatic forces are rather the result of the addition of progressive spherical waves emitted by electrons or positrons.

Because energy is the square of amplitude, which is doubled there, this area basically contains four times more energy than that of one electron. What is more, those standing waves are also amplified by aether waves in the same manner as electrons alone are, and the resulting energy becomes additional mass.

Finally, the gluonic field mass is much greater than that of one electron. It becomes clear that the electron pair which is responsible for the whole quark including the gluonic field becomes almost invisible. In addition, the resulting frequency is no longer that of the electron. So the electrostatic forces cannot work any more, but there is still some place for some other sort of spin, which is known to be fractional.

Most of the proton mass, which is 1836 times that of one electron, is located inside gluonic fields. They are very strong fields of force. The neutron contains only three quarks, each quark being made of two electrons and/or positrons only, but there is most probably an additional positron hidden in the middle of the proton.

The hydrogen atom.

However, the wave addition works quite differently for the electron-positron pair. Assuming that the proton is a neutron containing a positron, this is the case for the the hydrogen atom whose nucleus is one proton only. In such a case, there is a pi/2 phase offset and the wave addition produces the stunning on-axis unidirectional radiation, which is responsible for magnetic fields.

The electron in the presence of a proton generates this unidirectional radiation.

The wave direction is reversed for opposite spin and also for any lambda/2 distance difference.

This phenomenon is the origin of magnetic north and south poles.

   

Mr. Milo Wolff's onion layers.

My own calculations using both the Huygens Principle and Mr. Wolff's "onion layers" comparison (each layer internal radius is that of the precedent external radius, and the layer thickness is a half-wavelength) lead me to the diagram below. The formulas were given by Mr. Jocelyn Marcotte in 2006.

   

 

The electron standing wave amplitude.

This is no longer true for very long distances, where amplitude is nil.

   

Mr. Milo Wolff's phase shift.

Those calculations were very satisfactory and all seemed O.K. More similar schemes can also be found on the Internet and may have been elaborated hundreds of years ago. However, Mr. Milo Wolff suggested that this wave system could be an electron. 

Mr. Wolff also spoke about a "phase shift". He invoked it in order to justify the electron spin.

However, I do not agree. In my picture, the electron and positron spin is the result of a phase difference, which is well visible in the animated diagram below:

   

The electron spin.

   

The 1/2 and +1/2 spins are opposite, yet they both belong to the electron. The electron vs. positron phase is not opposite, there is rather a pi / 2 difference only. Thus, there is no need to invoke a phase shift in order to explain spin.

Such a phase shift seemed to me a quite useless and weird idea. However my computer programs could easily reveal phases. So I begun investigating inside the electron core and I found... a phase shift!

The phase shift is clearly visible below:

   

  The lambda / 2 phase shift.

  The leftward and rightward wave addition produces the standard electron.

One could also say in-waves and out-waves, but both interpretations are wrong from my point of view.

   

Faster than the speed of light.

Clearly, the wave accelerates inside the spherical central antinode.

Since the beginning I always thought that the waves mean speed was constant whether the aether was filled with high energy waves or not. For this reason the speed of light is a constant. It is absolute.

However, the speed of sound, for example, is faster at sea level then at high altitude. The temperature being constant, the sound waves are faster where the air pressure is higher.

From Mr. Wolff's "onion layers" point of view, the spherical wave amplitude should be linked to each layer volume: 

   

Surprisingly, the first onion layer volume is exactly seven (7) times that of the electron core.

The sine wave energy distribution inside each layer leads to the equivalent sin(x)/x equation.

   

Clearly, as soon as they are penetrating the internal sphere, incoming waves have to deal with a seven times smaller volume (please bear in mind that this is only the mathematical point of view) where the medium compression is very high. But the important point is that the medium is compressed on a full lambda distance, allowing an unusual faster wave speed there. 

The acceleration inside the core is also clearly visible on this animation :

   

  Here, the Huygens' wavelets come from the surface of just one hemisphere, that on the left hand side.

   

Both hemispheres simply reproduce the unmoving electron.

   

The radiation pressure.

It becomes clear that any convergent hemispheric wave must move faster than the speed of light inside the core or focus point. Such a situation may be seen as the result of millions of Huygens' wavelets incoming from the inner surface of only one hemisphere. However, this does not occur inside a static, unmoving electron because both hemispheres theoretically produce waves traveling in opposite directions.

This strongly suggests to me that when the wave amplitude is not equal from both sides, the electron central antinode must be pushed away. This motion produces a slight Doppler effect, and it becomes more and more significant until the unequal amplitude situation stops. The result is my Doppler moving electron:

   

 The Doppler moving electron.

Each spherical wave center of curvature stays at rest inside aether.

   

This animation shows the electron while it is moving at half of the speed of light (beta = .5). Then the Doppler wave amplitude ratio equals:

(l b) / (1 + b) = 3

The forward amplitude is 3 while it is 1 backward. The difference (3 1 = 2) indicates that the electron core is constantly pushed forward by half of the speed of light. This is a very plausible explanation for inertia. Any moving electron cannot change its speed unless a change in forward or backward wave amplitude occurs.

The "Wave Structure of Matter".

So far as I know, Mr. Milo Wolff first proposed this spherical standing wave as the basic unit for matter.

He told us that the electron and the positron were the same particle.

He discovered the important lambda / 2 phase shift.

He showed that the mass increase was related to the Doppler effect.

He also demonstrated that despite the fact that they may be seen as a point, electrons are actually present inside a rather large space. Thus, a wave interaction becomes possible in such a way that a given number of electrons and positrons are not isolated any more. On the contrary, they can form a structure: a Wave Structure. Obviously, speaking about the Wave Structure of Matter is the next highly relevant step, but unfortunately Mr. Wolff and most of his disciples united under this banner were strangely silent on this. As a matter of fact, they never proposed any wave structure.

I am very disappointed that so many people were wrongly led into some sort of mystic sect. Frankly, philosophy is not the appropriate tool. This is weird. 

The most brilliant exception was Mrs. Caroline H. Thompson, who asked the correct question: What is matter? She did propose a "Wave Structure" in the form of a tetrahedron; my own researches did not lead to this hypothesis but it is still possible. She also pointed out that many of Mr. Wolff's ideas were somewhat evanescent. She proposed her own wave theory. She was very convinced that many of today's well accepted ideas such as photons, misunderstood quantum effects, the non existence of the aether, Einstein's Relativity, etc., had to be reviewed. She realized that because of this, the scientific world was led on a blind alley. I also think that many of today's assumptions in physics are definitely false.  

Mrs. Caroline Thompson was a very clever person, perhaps the most clever woman ever. 

More Pioneers.

I strongly believe that Lorentz was right. His Relativity is true and complete. Space and time are distinct and absolute. Einstein's Special Relativity seems to be true but the postulates are not. Especially, the speed of light is not the same in all frames of reference. Einstein also misled us for 100 years about photons and gravity. His ideas about space-time contraction and/or curvature are ridiculous.

I also agree with Mr. Serge Cabala's ideas. The piston machine on his home page is very interesting. It shows how the Lorentz transformations act on matter. In my opinion this pioneer should be remembered as the first person on this planet who discovered (around 1970) that matter is purely made out of waves. He postulated that aether should exist, and he also showed that Relativity is consistent with the aether.

Mr. Yuri Ivanov discovered in 1990 that standing waves undergo a contraction according to Michelson's calculations. This is of the utmost importance. As far as I know, nobody else was aware of this before him. What is more, he showed that matter using standing waves as bonding forces should also contract for this reason, and that this could explain Michelson's null result and Relativity. Unfortunately, he clearly did not understand well Lorentz's time equation, and he finally ended up with too severe a contraction.

The true cause.

On July 10, 2006, Mr. Jocelyn Marcotte succeeded in experimenting the moving and unmoving electron thanks to his own 3-D Virtual Medium. It was a great achievement.

The point is that Mr. Marcotte's experiment also clearly demonstrated that, near to the electron center, the first spherical node is one wavelength wide in diameter instead of the normal lambda / 2 length between two successive nodes. Inside the inner spherical node, the additional distance for a theoretical incoming and then outgoing wave is half of a wavelength, which finally causes the lambda / 2 phase shift. But this is only the mathematical point of view.

From a mechanical point of view, though, the first spherical node is totally an obstacle to any wave displacement. Clearly, no energy can pass through it because a standing wave node is a constant zero energy zone. So, a more reasonable hypothesis should be that waves are simply bouncing back and forth between the first and the second spherical node, whose radius is extended to an additional lambda / 4 length as compared to a theoretical node right at the center.

This is the true cause of the electron phase shift.

More proofs.

Please download this program on the Wave Mechanics:

WaveMechanics05.bas        WaveMechanics05.exe

This program was intended to show how waves behave in the vicinity of reflectors such as parabolic, elliptic, corner, straight and even three-sided. I am quite sure that this sort of program, which is easily upgradeable, will soon become a must for opticians, acousticians, and radio-electricians. However, I managed to start the program on the elliptic configuration for both the emitter and receiver. In addition, both sections are joined together into a full elliptic reflector.

It is a well known fact that the ellipse main property is that the distance from one focal point to any point of the ellipse and then to the second focal point is rigorously constant. This apparently unavoidable property led mathematicians to postulate that circular (or spherical for the ellipsoid reflector) waves emitted at the first focal point should reach the second focal point without any distortion.

Well, this proves to be absolutely false, and one must admit that equations for this are not reliable. It is all about amplitude, not phase. Because amplitude is clearly higher on the left hand side, the central antinode at the second focal point is not circular any more. It is rather elliptic, and the result is an equivalent node and antinode offset. In addition, the characteristic "partially standing wave" behavior is easily recognizable (see Plane Standing Waves) as a longitudinal motion which is also observable in the animation shown above (Airy180.gif).

Regular waves can influence standing waves.

This behavior applies to the moving electron and the phase shift calculus then becomes much more complex. Finally, the same behavior also explains radiation pressure as well as inertia.

Until some organization realizes that this most important phenomenon should be experimented by means of a physical device, using air, water or solid homogenous substance such as quartz, the only experiment available now needs Philippe Delmotte's and Jocelyn Marcotte's virtual medium, which is a virtual but still highly dependable laboratory. The goal is to show that traveling waves penetrating a circular or spherical standing wave system will introduce some changes. It is important to test this experimentally.

Besides Mr. Marcotte's experiment, this phenomenon is indeed easily verifiable inside air or water by means of a large number of loudspeakers regularly spaced on the internal surface of a sphere. This will produce wavelets in accordance with the Huygens Principle, and whose addition generates a unique incoming spherical wave front.

The important point is that traveling waves definitely influence standing waves. Two electrons pulsating spherical waves all around will surely influence each other. Clearly, this explains the action and reaction law, and the whole matter mechanics becomes possible thanks to the radiation pressure.

This flawless demonstration is a very strong argument in favor of the wave nature of matter. 

The electron phase shift and the Wave Mechanics.

The electron phase shift is of the utmost importance because it leads to some totally different Wave Mechanics. Magnetic, electrostatic and gluonic fields are especially involved. Now that the electron additional lambda / 2 wavelength inside its central core is well established, action and reaction through fields of force can finally be explained.

Now, we can understand why Newton's laws hold true.

   

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Gabriel LaFreniere

Bois-des-Filion in Québec.

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On the Internet since September 2002. Last update December 3, 2009.